Individual values

IV redirects here. For the fourth generation of Pokémon games, see Generation IV.

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Individual values (Japanese: 個体値 individual values), abbreviated IVs, and sometimes referred to as determinant values (DVs) in the context of Generations I and II, are the Pokémon equivalent of genes. They are instrumental in determining the stats of a Pokémon, being responsible for the large variation in stats among untrained Pokémon of the same species.

They have been officially known as 生まれつきの強さ innate strengths in Japanese since at least Pokémon Gold and Silver; in English, recent media from The Pokémon Company International has called them individual strengths.[1][2] In the games, the term potential is often used to allude to IVs, such as by the stats judge. Shigeru Ohmori has stated that the reason EVs and IVs are hidden is because he prefers to think of Pokémon as "real, living creatures".[3]

Each of the six battle stats has an IV associated with it, with that IV coming into calculation alongside the Pokémon's base stats and EVs to determine the actual stat number. A Pokémon's IVs are determined when it is generated by the game: when it is obtained as an Egg from the Pokémon Day Care, encountered in the wild, or given to the player by an NPC.

Generation I and II

In Generation I and II, only four IVs stored for each individual Pokémon: Attack, Defense, Speed, and Special. Each of these is used to determine their associated stat, with the HP IV determined from the IVs stored for the other four. IVs range from 0-15 (in binary 0000-1111).

The HP IV is calculated by taking the least significant bit (the final binary digit) of the Attack, Defense, Speed, and Special IVs, then creating a binary string by placing them in that order. As such, a Pokémon with an odd-number Attack IV has 8 added to its HP IV, an odd-number Defense IV has 4 added, an odd-number Speed IV has 2 added, and an odd-number Special IV has 1 added.

In Generation II, due to the Special stat being split into Special Attack and Special Defense, the Special IV is used for both Special Attack and Special Defense.

In Generation II, several things aside from stats are also based on stats IVs. From Generation III onward, all of these except the type and power of Hidden Power are determined by the Pokémon's personality value instead.

Usage

Determination of stats

In Generation I and II, a Pokémon's stats are determined according to the following formulas.

HP calc.png

Statcalc gen12.png

Example
For two Mewtwo caught in Cerulean Cave:

Pokémon HP Attack Defense Speed Special
Mewtwo A 234 178 138 198 229
4
(0100)
14
(1110)
5
(0101)
8
(1000)
6
(0110)
Mewtwo B 228 161 139 201 237
0
(0000)
2
(0010)
6
(0110)
10
(1010)
12
(1100)

Gender

In Generation II, a Pokémon's gender is determined based solely on its Attack IV when compared to a value specific to each Pokémon species. A Pokémon is female if its Attack IV is less than or equal to its species' gender code, otherwise it is male. For species that are exclusively one gender or have no gender, the calculation based on the Attack IV is ignored.

Due to this calculation, it is impossible to obtain a female Pokémon with high Attack, unless the Pokémon is a member of an all-female species like Jynx or Chansey. Starter Pokémon and others with a gender ratio of seven males to one female suffer the most, with the maximum Attack IV for a female Pokémon of those species being 1.

Gender ratios are actually somewhat skewed from the theoretical values. For example, a Pokémon with a supposed 1:1 gender ratio will actually be male 9/16 of the time and female 7/16 of the time (when IVs are completely random).

Attack IV Gender ratio
Male Female Male Female
N/A N/A Genderless
0-15 N/A 100.0% 0.0%
2-15 0-1 87.5% 12.5%
5-15 0-4 75.0% 25.0%
7-15 0-6 50.0% 50.0%
12-15 0-11 25.0% 75.0%
N/A 0-15 0.0% 100.0%

Example
For two Cyndaquil obtained from Professor Elm:

Pokémon Gender HP Attack Defense Speed Sp. Atk Sp. Def
Cyndaquil A 20 10 9 12 11 10
13
(1101)
1
(0001)
3
(0011)
10
(1010)
9
(1001)
Cyndaquil B 19 11 10 12 11 10
6
(0110)
14
(1110)
7
(0111)
11
(1011)
2
(0010)

Shininess

In Generation II, whether or not a Pokémon is Shiny is determined by its IVs.

A Pokémon is Shiny if and only if both of the following conditions are met.

  • Its Defense, Speed, and Special IVs are all 10.
  • Its Attack IV is 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, or 15.

Except when IVs are influenced due to breeding, this set of IVs has a 1/8192 chance of occurring, which is also the likelihood of a wild Pokémon being Shiny in Generation III, IV, and V. Due to HP IV being calculated from the other IVs, a Shiny Pokémon's HP IV can only be 0 (if the Attack IV is even) or 8 (if the Attack IV is odd).

Since 0 and 1 are not possible Attack IVs for a Shiny Pokémon, female Pokémon of species with a seven male to one female ratio can never be Shiny in Generation II.

Example
For two Sandshrew caught in Union Cave (Sandshrew A is Shiny, Sandshrew B is not Shiny):

Pokémon Gender HP Attack Defense Speed Sp. Atk Sp. Def
Sandshrew A ShinyIIStars.png 22 14 16 11 8 9
8
(1000)
7
(0111)
10
(1010)
10
(1010)
10
(1010)
Sandshrew B 22 14 17 10 8 9
7
(0111)
6
(0110)
15
(1111)
7
(0111)
5
(0101)

Unown's letter

In Generation II, Unown's letter is taken from the combination of the center two bits of the Attack, Defense, Speed and Special IV nibbles. This combination is then divided by ten, and the result is rounded down (floor[]) to only include the integer part of the number. This integer will range from 0-25, corresponding to a letter in the Latin alphabet, which will be the Unown's letter (where 0=A, 1=B, 2=C, ..., 23=X, 24=Y, 25=Z).

In Generation II, due to this method of calculating Unown's letter and the way that Shiny Pokémon are determined, a Shiny Unown can only exist in the shape of the letter I or V.

In Generation III, Unown's letter is determined by the Pokémon's personality value. From Generation IV onward, it is determined by a separate form identifier. Generation III also introduced Unown '!' or '?'.

Example
For two Unown caught in the Ruins of Alph:

Pokémon HP Attack Defense Speed Sp. Atk Sp. Def Combination Integer Letter
Unown 1 20 13 10 9 13 11 67
(01000011)
6 G
6
(0110)
10
(1010)
9
(1001)
1
(0001)
14
(1110)
Unown 2 21 12 11 10 12 10 182
(10110110)
18 S
13
(1101)
5
(0101)
15
(1111)
10
(1010)
5
(0101)

Hidden Power

Main article: Hidden Power (move)/Calculation

The calculated Type and Power of the move Hidden Power is based on the IVs of the Pokémon. Hidden Power can be of any type aside from Normal, and can have a power between 31 and 70. The formula used in Generation II is different to the one used in later generations.

The move's type is determined by the two least significant bits of the Attack and Defense IVs. The move's power is determined by the most significant bit of each of the Pokémon's IVs, as well as the two least significant bits of the Special IVs.

Generation III onward

In Generation III, the IV system was completely overhauled; now, IVs range from 0-31 rather than 0-15, with HP and Special Defense getting their own independent IVs.

Since IVs now have twice the range, they now have half the influence on a Pokémon's stats. The EV system overhaul and the addition of Natures also result in small changes to formula used to determine stats. The personality value was introduced in Generation III, which handles a Pokémon's gender and Shiny status instead, as well as several other properties; in Generation III, Unown's form was also handled using the personality value, but this is stored separately in Generation IV onward.

The overhaul of the Pokémon data structure is one of the reasons why it was not made possible to trade between Generation II and Generation III games.

Usage

Determination of stats

From Generation III onward, a Pokémon's stats are determined according to the following formulas.

HPStatCalcGen34.png

OtherStatCalcGen34.png

Example
For two Marill caught on Route 120:

Pokémon Sp. Def Sp. Atk Speed Defense Attack HP
Marill A 46 22 40 47 22 101
19
(10011)
8
(01000)
21
(10101)
20
(10100)
9
(01001)
20
(10100)
Marill B 48 24 34 50 23 97
23
(10111)
17
(10001)
4
(00100)
30
(11110)
12
(01100)
10
(01010)

Hidden Power

Main article: Hidden Power (move)/Calculation

The calculated Type and Power of the move Hidden Power is based on the IVs of the Pokémon. Hidden Power can be of any type aside from Normal, and prior to Generation VI, have a power between 30 and 70.

The least significant bit of each IV determines the move's Type, and the second-least significant bit of each determines the move's Power.

Evaluation

Stats judge

Main article: Stats judge

From Pokémon Emerald onward, there is a stats judge in the game in the region's battle facility or the city it is in. They give qualitative evaluations of the Pokémon's IVs.

Starting in Generation VI, the stats judge will also specifically note 0 IVs.

Characteristic

Main article: Characteristic

From Generation IV onward, each Pokémon has a characteristic, a small blurb that indicates which of the Pokémon's IVs is the highest in a roundabout way. Rather than explicitly stating it, one of 30 of these short sentences is chosen, depending on which of the six stats the highest IV is in and how much more than a multiple of five it is.

Example

Pokémon Sp. Def Sp. Atk Speed Defense Attack HP Characteristic
Dusclops A 161 77 36 158 89 107 "Strong willed"
30
(11110)
14
(01110)
9
(01001)
25
(11001)
16
(10000)
0
(00000)
30 (Sp. Def) mod 5 = 0
Dusclops B 149 86 35 160 93 115 "Mischievous"
7
(00111)
31
(11111)
6
(00110)
28
(11100)
24
(11000)
15
(01111)
31 (Sp. Atk) mod 5 = 1

Influence

In Generation VI, Pokémon in the Undiscovered Group are now guaranteed to have values of 31 in at least three of their stats when caught in the wild or obtained as a gift. Pokémon caught in the Friend Safari will have values of 31 in at least two of their stats.

Storage

IVs are now all stored together as a single 32-bit value. Since IVs require 30 bits to be stored, the two most significant bits of this value are used to store other data.

In Generation III, the most significant bit specifies which of two Abilities a Pokémon has (if it has potential to have more than one). If the Pokémon's species can have only one Ability in Generation III, the Ability bit is forced to 0 by the game (if it is forced to be 1, "No ability" will be listed as the Pokémon's Ability).

In Generation IV onward, the most significant bit instead specifies whether or not the Pokémon is nicknamed, while the second-most significant bit fulfills the same role as in Generation III. This allows an unnicknamed Pokémon traded to a game of a different language to retain its name in the language of the previous game, but still change its name upon evolution.

The second-most significant bit specifies whether or not the Pokémon is an unhatched Egg or not.

The remaining 30 bits are the IVs, five bits apiece, in the order Sp. Def, Sp. Atk, Speed, Defense, Attack, and HP.

In other games

In Pokémon GO

In Pokémon GO, IV values range from 0 to 15. Pokémon have an IV for each of their three basic stats: HP, Attack, and Defense. In Pokémon GO, IVs are the only factor that can distinguish one Pokémon's stats from another's of the same species.

Pokémon hatched from Eggs have a high chance of having high IVs.

See also

External links

In other languages

Language Title
France Flag.png French Stats individuelles
Germany Flag.png German Individuelle Stärken
Italy Flag.png Italian Punti individuali
Spain Flag.png Spanish Fortalezas individuales

References

  1. Training Battle-Ready Pokémon!
  2. The Details of Discovering Pokémon Eggs
  3. Pokemon's Junichi Masuda: 'We weren’t explicitly targeting children' (Wired UK)
Pokémon individuality
LevelStatisticsGenderAbilityNatureCharacteristic
Effort valuesIndividual valuesConditionPerformance


Project Games logo.png This game mechanic article is part of Project Games, a Bulbapedia project that aims to write comprehensive articles on the Pokémon games.
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