When a Pokémon with this Ability is hit by a move that makes contact, there is a 30% chance that the attacking Pokémon will become infatuated if it is of the opposite gender to the Pokémon with this Ability. This Ability will not activate if the Pokémon with this Ability is genderless.
If a Pokémon with this Ability is hit by a multi-strike move that makes contact (such as Fury Swipes), each hit has an independent chance to activate this Ability.
Outside of battle
From Pokémon Emerald onwards, if a Pokémon with Cute Charm is in the first place in the party (even if fainted), there is a 66.7% chance that the game will force an encountered Pokémon to be the opposite gender from the Pokémon with Cute Charm if it can be that gender. This does not affect a swarming Pokémon species or Pokémon found in Hidden Grottos.
Sometimes when Lopunny makes contact with the opponent while the opponent is of the opposite gender of Lopunny, it falls in love with it, making it hard for it to attack female Pokémon. While it is in love, its eyes are replaced with hearts and it drools slightly.